The Timetree of Life

The Timetree of Life

Besides these merger models, at least two other models have been proposed that are referred to here as “deeproot” models ... Although Giardia have mitosomes, it may be difficult to prove beyond doubt that those organelles are relic ...

Author: S. Blair Hedges

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191560156

Category: Science

Page: 576

View: 352

The evolutionary history of life includes two primary components: phylogeny and timescale. Phylogeny refers to the branching order (relationships) of species or other taxa within a group and is crucial for understanding the inheritance of traits and for erecting classifications. However, a timescale is equally important because it provides a way to compare phylogeny directly with the evolution of other organisms and with planetary history such as geology, climate, extraterrestrial impacts, and other features. The Timetree of Life is the first reference book to synthesize the wealth of information relating to the temporal component of phylogenetic trees. In the past, biologists have relied exclusively upon the fossil record to infer an evolutionary timescale. However, recent revolutionary advances in molecular biology have made it possible to not only estimate the relationships of many groups of organisms, but also to estimate their times of divergence with molecular clocks. The routine estimation and utilization of these so-called 'time-trees' could add exciting new dimensions to biology including enhanced opportunities to integrate large molecular data sets with fossil and biogeographic evidence (and thereby foster greater communication between molecular and traditional systematists). They could help estimate not only ancestral character states but also evolutionary rates in numerous categories of organismal phenotype; establish more reliable associations between causal historical processes and biological outcomes; develop a universally standardized scheme for biological classifications; and generally promote novel avenues of thought in many arenas of comparative evolutionary biology. This authoritative reference work brings together, for the first time, experts on all major groups of organisms to assemble a timetree of life. The result is a comprehensive resource on evolutionary history which will be an indispensable reference for scientists, educators, and students in the life sciences, earth sciences, and molecular biology. For each major group of organism, a representative is illustrated and a timetree of families and higher taxonomic groups is shown. Basic aspects of the evolutionary history of the group, the fossil record, and competing hypotheses of relationships are discussed. Details of the divergence times are presented for each node in the timetree, and primary literature references are included. The book is complemented by an online database (www.timetree.net) which allows researchers to both deposit and retrieve data.
Categories: Science

Translation

Translation

2 . The velvet tree , a relic of the tertiary epoch , secured in the Far East , The area of its natural distribution is very wide , the varieties , - Phillodendion amuranse ... It possesses a sturdy deep root system with many branches .

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015070551356

Category: Forest management

Page:

View: 681

Categories: Forest management

Functional Properties of Traditional Foods

Functional Properties of Traditional Foods

year but it can be as low as 2 in./year in the most arid areas ... The argan tree is an 80-million-year-old relic tree species. ... is equipped with a deep root system that can reach water in the moist layers well below the soil crust.

Author: Kristberg Kristbergsson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781489976628

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 384

View: 640

This third book in the Trilogy of Traditional Foods, part of the ISEKI Food Series, covers the beneficial properties of functional foods from across the world. The volume is divided into four sections that address different key topics in the area of study. Part I provides a general overview of the material, with chapters on functional aspects of antioxidants and probiotics in traditional food. This section also includes chapters on the potential health benefits of Thai, Slovak and Turkish traditional foods. Part II contains eight chapters on cereal-based foods, including chapters on Carob flour, products from Mexican Chia, and the ancient grain Cañahua. Part III is devoted to plant based foods and includes chapters on dates from Israel, medical properties of cactus products from Mexico, beneficial properties of Mastic gum from the Greek island Chios, and the properties of Argan oil from Morocco. Part IV focuses on Honey and Beverages, with chapters on functional and nutritional properties of honey and the properties of Camellia tea, as well as the Spanish drink Horchata De Chufa. The purpose of the book is to describe and sometimes evaluate properties of foods that native consumers have believed to be beneficial. All chaptersare written by practicing Food Scientists or Engineers but are written with the interested general public in mind.The book should cater to the practicing food professional as well as all who are interested in beneficial properties of traditional foods.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Renovatio

Renovatio

It also shares a deep root in the mature spirituality of Augustine, which gravitated to the graced weakness Paul speaks of as the remedy for spiritual pride (2 Cor. 12:7–10; Martin: 2001; Hombert: 1996, 310ff).

Author: Phil Anderas

Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht

ISBN: 9783647593777

Category: Religion

Page: 345

View: 481

Much mainstream Luther scholarship (and Lutheran theology) holds that Martin Luther downplayed, denied, derided, or just plain ignored "the holiness without which no one shall see the Lord" (Heb. 12:14). Phil Anderas advances a revisionist thesis: from the first inklings of his "Augustinian turn" c. 1514 to his death in 1546, Luther held and taught a robust theology of progressive renewal in holiness, carefully calibrated to the sober reality of residual sin and the astonishing gospel of grace in Jesus Christ. As it is set forth in the works that embody Luther's most considered judgments ( c. 1535-46), this gospel-centered and irreducibly trinitarian dogmatics of real renewal in holiness is "Augustinian" and "evangelical" in equal parts. As such, it commands the regard of theologians who stand in the tradition of the Church's doctor gratiae. The argument proceeds in three steps: first, an exposition of the mature Luther's dogmatics of sin, grace, and holiness; second, an investigation of the roots of this dogmatics in the theology of the "420s Augustine," with whom a younger Luther was busily engaged c. 1514-16; third, an account of the continuities and discontinuities that characterize the development of Luther's theology from its embryonic state in the mid-1510s through the breakthroughs of the 1518-21 period to the settled position of the old Doctor.
Categories: Religion

The Pall Mall Budget

The Pall Mall Budget

I am very much afraid that pencilling may lead It is peculiarly pleasant , in looking at the relic to which I have ... Vichnou was being taken at 2 to i for the Lyons Hurdle leaf on the top , which is thrown backwards when in use .

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: CORNELL:31924069724767

Category:

Page:

View: 194

Categories:

A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography

A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography

The Palatium , or Palatine hill , of the she - wolf suckling the two royal infants was itself was thought to have been ... Nothing indeed can be a more striking proof of the antiquity of this tradition , as well as of the deep root ...

Author: William Smith

Publisher:

ISBN: HARVARD:HN2V1X

Category: Classical geography

Page:

View: 583

Categories: Classical geography

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography

The Palatium , or Palatine hill , of the she - wolf suckling the two royal infants was itself was thought to have been ... Nothing indeed can be a more striking proof of the antiquity of this tradition , as well as of the deep root ...

Author: William Smith

Publisher:

ISBN: RMS:RMS5LSR1000000254$$$T

Category: Classical geography

Page: 1383

View: 179

Categories: Classical geography

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology

The Palatium , or Palatine hill , of the she - wolf suckling the two royal infants was itself was thought to have been ... Nothing indeed can be a more striking proof of the antiquity of this tradition , as well as of the deep root ...

Author: William Smith

Publisher:

ISBN: IOWA:31858042730808

Category: Biography

Page:

View: 961

Categories: Biography

A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography by Various Writers

A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography by Various Writers

The Palatium , or Palatine hill , of the she - wolf suckling the two royal infants was itself was thought to have been ... Nothing indeed can be a more striking proof of the antiquity of this tradition , as well as of the deep root ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: IBNF:CF005832162

Category:

Page: 1383

View: 782

Categories:

Picturesque Stamford

Picturesque Stamford

A Souvenir of the Two Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the Settlement of the Town of Stamford, Containing an Historical Sketch, ... and didst cause it to take the close of the seventeenth deep root , and it filled the century .

Author: Edward T. W. Gillespie

Publisher:

ISBN: COLUMBIA:CU54270146

Category: Stamford (Conn.)

Page: 316

View: 380

Categories: Stamford (Conn.)