Production and Comprehension of Utterances RLE Linguistics B Grammar

Production and Comprehension of Utterances  RLE Linguistics B  Grammar

By reconstructing anImarker constituent the hearer has made the first step towards reconstructing the Imarker from whichthe utterance was derived. Now, obviouslyExample (6.5) isnotthe only relation rule which fits linguistsN+ describedV ...

Author: I.M. Schlesinger

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317933526

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 256

View: 399

In this volume, the author reviews the results of research on language performance and proposes a model of production and comprehension. Although recent developments in linguistics are taken into account, consideration of other requirements of a performance model leads to the conclusion that the grammar the speaker has in mind differs from the grammar as currently conceived of by most linguists. The author is also critical of recent computer simulations of language performance on the basis that they fall short of describing what goes on in human production and comprehension. The author therefore proposes that the basic issues must be rethought and new theoretical foundations reformulated, in order to arrive at a viable theory of language functioning. In developing the framework of the model presented in this book, requirements of flexibility in the performance mechanisms, the probabilistic nature of comprehension processes, and the interleaving of linguistic rules with context and knowledge of the world are emphasized.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Oxford Handbook of Laboratory Phonology

The Oxford Handbook of Laboratory Phonology

This could mean there is less time to produce it in utterance-medial position, resulting in more omission. Acoustic analysis of our stimuli used for both elicited production and comprehension experiments with 2-year-olds indicates that ...

Author: Abigail C. Cohn

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199575039

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 863

View: 162

This book provides state-of-the-art coverage of research in laboratory phonology. Laboratory phonology denotes a research perspective, not a specific theory: it represents a broad community of scholars dedicated to bringing interdisciplinary experimental approaches and methods to bear on how spoken language is structured, learned and used; it draws on a wide range of tools and concepts from cognitive and natural sciences. This book describes the investigative approaches,disciplinary perspectives, and methods deployed in laboratory phonology, and highlights the most promising areas of current research.Part one introduces the history, nature, and aims of laboratory phonology. The remaining four parts cover central issues in research done within this perspective, as well as methodological resources used for investigating these issues. Contributions to this volume address how laboratory phonology approaches have provided insight into human speech and language structure and how theoretical questions and methodologies are intertwined. This Handbook, the first specifically dedicated tothe laboratory phonology approach, builds on the foundation of knowledge amassed in linguistics, speech research and allied disciplines. With the varied interdisciplinary contributions collected, the Handbook advances work in this vibrant field.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Communicating Relating

Communicating   Relating

One further note: Comprehending utterances is frequently referred to as a process of “decoding,” and producing ... that provides empirical evidence either that language production is a process of encoding, or that comprehension is a ...

Author: Robert B. Arundale

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190210205

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 248

View: 469

Communicating & Relating offers an account of how relating with one another emerges in communicating in everyday interacting. Prior work has indicated that human relationships arise in human communicating, and some studies have made arguments for why that is the case. Communicating & Relating moves beyond this work to offer an account of how both relating and face emerge in everyday talk and conduct: what comprises human communicating, what defines human social systems, how the social and the individual are linked in human life, and what comprises human relating and face. Part 1 develops the Conjoint Co-constituting Model of Communicating to address the question "How do participants constitute turns, actions, and meanings in everyday interacting?" Part 2 argues that the processes of constituting what is known cross-culturally as "face" are the processes of constituting relating, and develops Face Constituting Theory to address the question "How do participants constitute relating in everyday interacting?" The answers to both questions are grounded in evidence from everyday talk and conduct. Like other volumes in the Foundations of Human Interaction series, Communicating & Relating offers new perspectives and new research on communicative interaction and on human relationships as key elements of human sociality.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Emergence of Language

The Emergence of Language

The mean number of words per utterance in the training corpus was 6.65, and the mean number of content words per utterance ... The comprehension and production tasks are assessments of the model's ability to handle the primary task of ...

Author: Brian MacWhinney

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781135676919

Category: Psychology

Page: 520

View: 896

For nearly four centuries, our understanding of human development has been controlled by the debate between nativism and empiricism. Nowhere has the contrast between these apparent alternatives been sharper than in the study of language acquisition. However, as more is learned about the details of language learning, it is found that neither nativism nor empiricism provides guidance about the ways in which complexity arises from the interaction of simpler developmental forces. For example, the child's first guesses about word meanings arise from the interplay between parental guidance, the child's perceptual preferences, and neuronal support for information storage and retrieval. As soon as the shape of the child's lexicon emerges from these more basic forces, an exploration of "emergentism" as a new alternative to nativism and empiricism is ready to begin. This book presents a series of emergentist accounts of language acquisition. Each case shows how a few simple, basic processes give rise to new levels of language complexity. The aspects of language examined here include auditory representations, phonological and articulatory processes, lexical semantics, ambiguity processing, grammaticality judgment, and sentence comprehension. The approaches that are invoked to account formally for emergent patterns include neural network theory, dynamic systems, linguistic functionalism, construction grammar, optimality theory, and statistically-driven learning. The excitement of this work lies both in the discovery of new emergent patterns and in the integration of theoretical frameworks that can formalize the theory of emergentism.
Categories: Psychology

The Dynamics of the Linguistic System

The Dynamics of the Linguistic System

This dimension has important implications for the immediacy with which entrenchment affects production and comprehension. Utterances can be highly spontaneous, typically when produced in casual and unguarded conversation among ...

Author: Hans-Jörg Schmid

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198814771

Category:

Page: 432

View: 901

This volume outlines a model of language that can be characterized as functionalist, usage-based, dynamic, and complex-adaptive. The core idea is that linguistic structure is not stable and uniform, but continually refreshed by the interaction between three components: usage, the communicative activities of speakers; conventionalization, the social processes triggered by these activities and feeding back into them; and entrenchment, the individual cognitive processes that are also linked to these activities in a feedback loop. Hans-Jorg Schmid explains how this multiple feedback system works by extending his Entrenchment-and-Conventionalization Model, showing how the linguistic system is created, sustained, and continually adapted by the ongoing interaction between usage, conventionalization, and entrenchment. Fulfilling the promise of usage-based accounts, the model explains how exactly usage is transformed into collective and individual grammar and how these two grammars in turn feed back into usage. The book is exceptionally broad in scope, with insights from a wide range of linguistic subdisciplines. It provides a coherent account of the role of multiple factors that influence language structure, variation, and change, including frequency, economy, identity, multilingualism, and language contact.
Categories:

Understanding Dialogue

Understanding Dialogue

This account is adequate for an account of isolated language production and comprehension, but is insufficient for ... For example, the derived production command corresponds to the derived action command, the predicted utterance ...

Author: Martin J. Pickering

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781108473613

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 350

View: 512

Using a novel model, this book investigates the psycholinguistics of dialogue, approaching language use as a social activity.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Linguistic Intuitions

Linguistic Intuitions

One way to develop this idea has been in terms of what is called prediction models , where the predicted production and comprehension representations of the linguistic features of utterances ( phonological , syntactic , semantic and ...

Author: Samuel Schindler

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198840558

Category:

Page: 304

View: 794

This book examines the evidential status and use of linguistic intuitions, a topic that has seen increased interest in recent years. Linguists use native speakers' intuitions - such as whether or not an utterance sounds acceptable - as evidence for theories about language, but this approach is not uncontroversial. The two parts of this volume draw on the most recent work in both philosophy and linguistics to explore the two major issues at the heart of the debate. Chapters in the first part address the 'justification question', critically analysing and evaluating the theoretical rationale for the evidential use of linguistic intuitions. The second part discusses recent developments in the domain of experimental syntax, focusing on the question of whether formal and systematic models of gathering intuitions are epistemically and methodologically superior to the informal methods that have traditionally been used. The volume provides valuable insights into whether and how linguistic intuitions can be used in theorizing about language, and will be of interest to graduate students and researchers in linguistics, philosophy, and cognitive science.
Categories:

Asymmetries between Language Production and Comprehension

Asymmetries between Language Production and Comprehension

This book asserts that language is a signaling system rather than a code, based in part on such research as the finding that 5-year-old English and Dutch children use pronouns correctly in their own utterances, but often fail to interpret ...

Author: Petra Hendriks

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400769014

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 234

View: 201

This book asserts that language is a signaling system rather than a code, based in part on such research as the finding that 5-year-old English and Dutch children use pronouns correctly in their own utterances, but often fail to interpret these forms correctly when used by someone else. Emphasizing the unique and sometimes competing demands of listener and speaker, the author examines resulting asymmetries between production and comprehension. The text offers examples of the interpretation of word order and pronouns by listeners, and word order freezing and referential choice by speakers. It is explored why the usual symmetry breaks down in children but also sometimes in adults. Gathering contemporary insights from theoretical linguistic research, psycholinguistic studies and computational modeling, Asymmetries between Language Production and Comprehension presents a unified explanation of this phenomenon. “Through a lucid, comprehensive review of acquisition studies on reference-related phenomena, Petra Hendriks builds a striking case for the pervasiveness of asymmetries in comprehension/production. In her view, listeners systematically misunderstand what they hear, and speakers systematically fail to prevent such misunderstandings. She argues that linguistic theory should take stock of current psycholinguistic and developmental evidence on optionality and ambiguity, and recognize language as a signaling system. The arguments are compelling yet controversial: grammar does not specify a one-to-one correspondence between form and meaning; and the demands of the mapping task differ for listeners and speakers. Her proposal is formalized within optimality theory, but researchers working outside this framework will still find it of great interest. In the language-as-code vs. language-as-signal debate, Hendriks puts the ball firmly in the other court.” Ana Pérez-Leroux, University of Toronto, Canada
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Turn taking in human communicative interaction

Turn taking in human communicative interaction

To do this, we draw on the integrated account of production and comprehension developed by Pickering and Garrod ... Based on the context (the food, the time, knowledge of her son's habits) but without any utterance, she estimates that ...

Author: Judith Holler

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889198252

Category: Conversation

Page: 293

View: 585

The core use of language is in face-to-face conversation. This is characterized by rapid turn-taking. This turn-taking poses a number central puzzles for the psychology of language. Consider, for example, that in large corpora the gap between turns is on the order of 100 to 300 ms, but the latencies involved in language production require minimally between 600 ms (for a single word) or 1500 ms (for as simple sentence). This implies that participants in conversation are predicting the ends of the incoming turn and preparing in advance. But how is this done? What aspects of this prediction are done when? What happens when the prediction is wrong? What stops participants coming in too early? If the system is running on prediction, why is there consistently a mode of 100 to 300 ms in response time? The timing puzzle raises further puzzles: it seems that comprehension must run parallel with the preparation for production, but it has been presumed that there are strict cognitive limitations on more than one central process running at a time. How is this bottleneck overcome? Far from being 'easy' as some psychologists have suggested, conversation may be one of the most demanding cognitive tasks in our everyday lives. Further questions naturally arise: how do children learn to master this demanding task, and what is the developmental trajectory in this domain? Research shows that aspects of turn-taking, such as its timing, are remarkably stable across languages and cultures, but the word order of languages varies enormously. How then does prediction of the incoming turn work when the verb (often the informational nugget in a clause) is at the end? Conversely, how can production work fast enough in languages that have the verb at the beginning, thereby requiring early planning of the whole clause? What happens when one changes modality, as in sign languages – with the loss of channel constraints is turn-taking much freer? And what about face-to-face communication amongst hearing individuals – do gestures, gaze, and other body behaviors facilitate turn-taking? One can also ask the phylogenetic question: how did such a system evolve? There seem to be parallels (analogies) in duetting bird species, and in a variety of monkey species, but there is little evidence of anything like this among the great apes. All this constitutes a neglected set of problems at the heart of the psychology of language and of the language sciences. This Research Topic contributes to advancing our understanding of these problems by summarizing recent work from psycholinguists, developmental psychologists, students of dialog and conversation analysis, linguists, phoneticians, and comparative ethologists.
Categories: Conversation