Epigenetics of Cancer Prevention

Epigenetics of Cancer Prevention

This book discusses molecular epigenetic targets of natural products, such as green tea polyphenols, curcumin and resveratrol, and organ specific epigenetic targets related to diverse types of cancer, for example prostate, colorectal, ...

Author: Anupam Bishayee

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128125663

Category: Medical

Page: 442

View: 689

Epigenetics of Cancer Prevention, Volume Ten is the first to look at epigenetics and chemoprevention together. Although there is numerous scientific data available on how epigenetics can lead to cancer and how chemoprevention can be beneficial in the treatment of, or improvement of quality of life, together they will set an advanced understanding for the reader in this upcoming field of chemoprevention influencing epigenetics. This book discusses molecular epigenetic targets of natural products, such as green tea polyphenols, curcumin and resveratrol, and organ specific epigenetic targets related to diverse types of cancer, for example prostate, colorectal, breast, lung and skin cancers. Additionally, it encompasses a discussion on research methods and limitations to study epigenetics and epigenomics of chemopreventive drugs and personalized cancer treatment with phytochemicals. The book is ideal for cancer researchers, health care professionals and all individuals who are interested in cancer prevention research and its clinical applications, especially in natural remedies. Lists natural agents, including nutraceuticals, and their effects on normal or tumor genome Addresses various epigenetic systems and mechanisms in the regulation and support of the mammalian genome Discusses how various parts of dietary phytochemicals can influence or modify epigenetic mechanisms in several types of cancer
Categories: Medical

Epigenetics in Cancer Prevention

Epigenetics in Cancer Prevention

This volume addresses the question of how knowledge of epigenetic phenomena like DNA methylation and acetylation can be applied to early cancer detection and risk assessment.

Author: Mukesh Verma

Publisher:

ISBN: UVA:X004686584

Category: Science

Page: 330

View: 585

This volume addresses the question of how knowledge of epigenetic phenomena like DNA methylation and acetylation can be applied to early cancer detection and risk assessment. The objectives of the papers include defining the terminology used in epigenetics.
Categories: Science

Emerging Epigenetics in Cancer Chemoprevention by Dietary Phytochemicals

Emerging Epigenetics in Cancer Chemoprevention by Dietary Phytochemicals

Cancer chemoprevention is defined as the strategy to block or slow the onset of premalignant tumors and using relatively nontoxic chemical substance.

Author: Chengyue Zhang

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:990285821

Category: Cancer

Page: 193

View: 247

Cancer chemoprevention is defined as the strategy to block or slow the onset of premalignant tumors and using relatively nontoxic chemical substance. Recently, accumulating experimental evidence has suggested that epigenetic alterations are involved in cancer development. The scope of epigenetics lies on the molecular interface between genetics and environmental factors; external factors switch genes on and off by influencing how cells read the genes. DNA methylation, histone covalent modification and remodeling, miRNA-mediated gene silencing represent the major mechanisms that play important role in epigenetic control of gene expression. This thesis focused on elucidating the epigenetic mechanisms in cancer prevention by dietary phytochemicals. Nrf2 is a master regulator of the antioxidant response and xenobiotic metabolism through the regulation of a wide range of antioxidant and phase II detoxification genes. The cellular protective role of Nrf2 points its potential as a primary target in chemoprevetion. Our group has reported that within tumor development in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model, there is a progressive loss of expression of Nrf2 and its downstream target genes, which is associated CpG hypermethylation in the promoter region. Using TRAMP C1 cells, we demonstrated that sulforaphane is a potent demethylation agent and it restores the epigenetically silenced Nrf2 gene through DNA demethylation. JB6 cells are derived from normal skin epidermis. We found that hypermethylation of Nrf2 promoter also exists in the transformation sensitive JB6 P+ cell line. The epigenetic reactivation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway by Tanshinone IIA could potentially contribute to the attenuation of JB6 P+ cellular transformation under the challenge of TPA, a tumor promoter. On the other hand, histone modification, in particular acetylation of H3K27 residue, is implicated in the transcription activation of pro-survival, pro-proliferative, and pro-inflammatory genes following TPA treatment. Bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) proteins function as epigenetic reader that recognizes acetylated histone tails and recruits the transcription machinery. Our study revealed that a small molecule BET inhibitor JQ-1 exerts potent anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects by interfering with the core transcriptional program of neoplastic transformation. Last but not least, altered levels of miRNA have been linked to tumor malignancy due to their ability to regulate functional gene expression in carcinogenesis. Using oligonucleotide microarray approach we identified the most affected miRNAs in LNCaP cells. Then we further assessed one potential target of PEITC - miR-194 in prostate cancer cell invasiveness. Collectively, dietary phytochemicals could modulate cellular epigenetic events that in part contribute to the cancer preventive effects. Given that oxidative stress and inflammation reaction are important (micro) environmental factors in malignancy transformation, understanding the role of redox and inflammatory signaling in epigenetic regulation could bring novel insights in cancer prevention.
Categories: Cancer

Molecular mechanisms and physiology of disease

Molecular mechanisms and physiology of disease

Overall, this book encompasses a wide range of topics related to epigenetic mechanisms in health and disease and would appeal to anyone with an interest in epigenetics, chromatin biology and emerging epigenetic interventions and therapies.

Author: Nilanjana Maulik

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781493907069

Category: Medical

Page: 505

View: 289

In a simplified form, epigenetics refers to heritable changes in phenotype that are not due to changes in the underlying DNA sequence. In this book, epigenetic mechanisms of regulation and dysregulation in health and disease are explored in great depth. Detailed chapters on epigenetic processes including DNA methylation and chromatin post-translational modifications including potential interventions with DNA methyltransferase inhibitors and histone deacetylase inhibitors are explored in initial chapters. These provide a detailed overview and important background to the entire field. The book is then focussed on epigenetic mechanisms involved in various diseases including anti-inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Important accounts relating to the effects of epigenetics in metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and asthma are the focus of subsequent chapters. The role of epigenetic dysregulation in malignancy is a current topic of interest and represents an intense field of research. A large component of this book is dedicated to the analysis of aberrant epigenetic processes in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Further, chapters are focused on emerging cancer prevention using nutritional components and anti-cancer therapies particularly with histone deacetylase inhibitors, which have already been approved for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The emerging role of nanoparticle preparations, especially in the context of delivering potential epigenetic therapies to target cells in various diseases, is also explored in this book. Overall, this book encompasses a wide range of topics related to epigenetic mechanisms in health and disease and would appeal to anyone with an interest in epigenetics, chromatin biology and emerging epigenetic interventions and therapies.
Categories: Medical

Cancer Epigenetics

Cancer Epigenetics

This volume shares technologies that detect common epigenetic changes which are very important in the early detection, progression, and prognosis of cancer as well as the design of new therapeutic tools against cancer cells.

Author: Mukesh Verma

Publisher: Humana Press

ISBN: 1493948946

Category: Medical

Page: 804

View: 851

This volume shares technologies that detect common epigenetic changes which are very important in the early detection, progression, and prognosis of cancer as well as the design of new therapeutic tools against cancer cells. Beginning with a bit of background on epigenetic mechanisms, Cancer Epigenetics: Risk Assessment, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prognosis continues with cancer specific type epigenetic change, methods and technologies used for detecting epigenetic changes, factors that influence epigenetic changes in cancer, as well as a final section on future directions in the field. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters in this volume include the kind of detailed implementation advice that guarantees easily reproducible results. Comprehensive and practical, Cancer Epigenetics: Risk Assessment, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prognosis provides the most up-to-date knowledge of epigenetics and its implication in cancer prevention by risk assessment and screening and cancer control by treatment.
Categories: Medical

Dietary Factors and Cancer Cell Epigenetics

Dietary Factors and Cancer Cell Epigenetics

We have performed experiments using human colon cancer cell lines to enhance our understanding of these epigenetic mechanisms in the suppression of growth regulatory genes.

Author: Colleen C. Spurling

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:300477773

Category:

Page: 204

View: 175

Categories:

Epigenetics Territory and Cancer

Epigenetics Territory and Cancer

This book explores epigenetic strategies, bridging fundamental cancer epigenetics, different paradigms in tumor genetics and translational understanding for both the clinic and improved lifestyles.

Author: Parvin Mehdipour

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789401796392

Category: Medical

Page: 539

View: 994

This book explores epigenetic strategies, bridging fundamental cancer epigenetics, different paradigms in tumor genetics and translational understanding for both the clinic and improved lifestyles. The work provides target-based insights for treating different types of cancers and presents research on evolutionary epigenetics, introducing ‘Medical Epi- Anthropology’ and ‘Cancer Epi-Anthropology’. Translating multi-disciplinary research into therapeutic design is at the core of this book. Readers may explore how cancer management involves unmasking the involved networks and the interactive status of different genes to achieve the appropriate methylome based therapy. Early chapters explore fundamental aspects and brain tumours, whilst later chapters investigate breast cancer and various other cancers, and the final chapter presents an evolutionary insight in cancer epigenetics, considering that the epigene is beyond DNA methylation, RNA interference and histone modification in cancer development. This book will be of interest to researchers in different medical and scientific fields, including clinical management (diagnosis, prognosis, prediction, prevention, and guidelines), genetic education, nutrition and nutrigenomics, industrial chemistry, and drug innovation. Because of the unique bridging between science and medicine this book will also be useful as an educational and translational research package.
Categories: Medical

Epigenetics and Cancer

Epigenetics and Cancer

The ability of dietary compounds to act epigenetically in cancer cells has important implications for cancer prevention given the reversibility of epigenetic processes. In this chapter, we summarized existing data, both from animal and ...

Author:

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123808650

Category: Medical

Page: 314

View: 912

Genes interact with the environment, experience, and biology of the brain to shape an animal’s behavior. This latest volume in Advances in Genetics, organized according to the most widely used model organisms, describes the latest genetic discoveries in relation to neural circuit development and activity. Explores the latest topics in neural circuits and behavior research in zebrafish, drosophila, C.elegans, and mouse models Includes methods for testing with ethical, legal, and social implications Critically analyzes future prospects
Categories: Medical

Targeting Epigenetics and Nrf2 pathway by Dietary Phytochemicals

Targeting Epigenetics and Nrf2 pathway by Dietary Phytochemicals

The induction of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)- antioxidant response elements (ARE)-mediated antioxidant enzymes provides a cellular defense against oxidative stress, a major drive of human diseases such as the tumor.

Author: Yuqing Yang

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1032271886

Category: Epigenetics

Page: 210

View: 774

The induction of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)- antioxidant response elements (ARE)-mediated antioxidant enzymes provides a cellular defense against oxidative stress, a major drive of human diseases such as the tumor. Phytochemicals in folk medicine are widely being used as natural sources to develop novel therapeutics. Astaxanthin (AST) with potent antioxidant activity in combination with omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) at low concentration showed synergistic defense against oxidative stress via Nrf2-ARE pathway. The three natural chemicals alone and in combination elevated cellular GSH level, increased total antioxidant activity, induced mRNA expression of Nrf2 and its downstream genes in human HepG2-C8 cells. In addition, AST significantly decreased the methylation of GSTP1 promoter region and restored the expression of GSTP1, which is involved in detoxification and metabolism to prevent genome damage and cancer initiation. It suggests a correlation between the DNA methylation and GSTP1 expression in human prostate LNCaP cells. AST reduced protein expression and enzyme activity of the DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). Moreover, we demonstrated that Nrf2 shows protective role in epidermis against inflammation and extracellular matrix (ECM) damage induced by the UVB-irradiation. As compared with the wildt-ype (WT) mice, Nrf2 knockout (KO) mice showed the increased protein expression of inflammatory markers, including P53, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), and pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9 (pro-MMP-9). The protective effects of Nrf2 in response to the UVB-irradiation were mediated by increased HO-1 protein expression. Moreover, we conducted genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in UVB- and DMBA-TPA induced mouse skin tumor models to identify genes and pathways with significant changes. The top-ranked genes and pathways will provide insight into the discovery of key genes in skin tumor initiation and progression so as to provide potential preventive biomarkers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ursolic acid (UA), and sulforaphane (SFN) reduced in vivo skin carcinogenesis induced by UVB-irradiation. In conclusion, dietary natural chemicals alone or in combination attenuate oxidative stress, inflammation and even carcinogenesis through modulation of genetic and epigenetic events, and provide promising insights into cancer prevention.
Categories: Epigenetics

Epigenetics and Cancer

Epigenetics and Cancer

B. Epigenetic cancer prevention A plethora of studies points to a fundamental role of epigenetic changes in cancer development and progression. Accumulation of aberrant epigenetic changes is observed even in histologically normal ...

Author:

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123808677

Category: Science

Page: 394

View: 939

Genes interact with the environment, experience, and biology of the brain to shape an animal’s behavior. This latest volume in Advances in Genetics, organized according to the most widely used model organisms, describes the latest genetic discoveries in relation to neural circuit development and activity. Explores the latest topics in neural circuits and behavior research in zebrafish, drosophila, C.elegans, and mouse models Includes methods for testing with ethical, legal, and social implications Critically analyzes future prospects
Categories: Science