Epigenetics and Cancer

Epigenetics and Cancer

This latest volume in Advances in Genetics, organized according to the most widely used model organisms, describes the latest genetic discoveries in relation to neural circuit development and activity.

Author:

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123808677

Category: Science

Page: 394

View: 726

Genes interact with the environment, experience, and biology of the brain to shape an animal’s behavior. This latest volume in Advances in Genetics, organized according to the most widely used model organisms, describes the latest genetic discoveries in relation to neural circuit development and activity. Explores the latest topics in neural circuits and behavior research in zebrafish, drosophila, C.elegans, and mouse models Includes methods for testing with ethical, legal, and social implications Critically analyzes future prospects
Categories: Science

Epigenetic Mechanisms in Cancer

Epigenetic Mechanisms in Cancer

This volumes offers a unique evaluation of signature differences in childhood, sex-specific and race-specific cancers, and in doing so broadly illuminates the scope of epigenetic biomarkers in clinical environments.

Author: Sabita Saldanha

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128134603

Category: Medical

Page: 392

View: 646

Epigenetic Mechanisms in Cancer provides a comprehensive analysis of epigenetic signatures that govern disease development, progression and metastasis. Epigenetic signatures dictating tumor etiologies present an opportunity for biomarker identification which has broad potential for improving diagnosis, prognosis, prediction, and risk assessment. This volumes offers a unique evaluation of signature differences in childhood, sex-specific and race-specific cancers, and in doing so broadly illuminates the scope of epigenetic biomarkers in clinical environments. Chapters detail the major epigenetic process in humans consisting of DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in the initiation, progression and metastasis of tumors. Also delineated are recent technologies such as next generation sequencing that are used to identify epigenetic profiles (primarily methylation analysis) in samples (normal, benign and cancerous) and which are highly important to the analysis of epigenetic outcomes. Offers broad coverage that is applicable to audiences in various area of cancer research - population studies, diagnostics, prognosis, prediction, therapy, risk, etc. Provides critical review analysis of the topics that will clarify and delineate the potential roles of epigenetic signatures in cancer management Covers basic, as well as, clinical areas of epigenetic mechanisms in tumorigenesis Features contributions by leading experts in the field Provides comprehensive coverage of current epigenetic signatures involved in the etiology of various cancers and miRNAs
Categories: Medical

Epigenetic Advancements in Cancer

Epigenetic Advancements in Cancer

This volume explores the epigenetic alterations and their association with various human cancers.

Author: Manoj K. Mishra

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319249513

Category: Medical

Page: 246

View: 509

This volume explores the epigenetic alterations and their association with various human cancers. Considering one of human cancer as an example, individual chapters are focused on defining the role of epigenetic regulators and underlying mechanisms in cancer growth and progression. Epigenetic alteration including DNA methylation, histone modification, nucleosome positioning and non-coding RNAs expression are involved in a complex network of regulating expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and constitute an important event of the multistep process of carcinogenesis. Recent advances in the understanding of the epigenetic regulation and detailed information of these epigenetic changes in various cancers provide new avenues of advancements in diagnostics, prognostics, and therapies of this highly fatal disease.
Categories: Medical

Cancer Epigenetics

Cancer Epigenetics

This landmark work covers a wide array of aspects in the relatively new area of epigenetics, ranging from its role in the basic mechanisms of tumorigenesis, to the newest epigenetic drugs being de

Author: Trygve Tollefsbol

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420045806

Category: Science

Page: 472

View: 253

During the past few decades, it has become increasingly apparent that heredity is not the sole determining factor in disease development, such as cancer. This landmark work covers a wide array of aspects in the relatively new area of epigenetics, ranging from its role in the basic mechanisms of tumorigenesis, to the newest epigenetic drugs being developed and used for cancer therapy. Cancer Epigenetics presents in-depth discussions of DNA methylation alterations, histone and RNA modifications, and nucleosome remodeling, which are all intimately involved in the formation of tumors. It also analyzes metabolic influences on cancer epigenetics and advances in epigenetic cancer gene therapy. Discusses the Latest Advances in the Role of Epigenetics in Tumor Initiation, Progression, and Metastasis With stand-alone chapters written by research pioneers in the field, this definitive resource covers— DNA methylation and cancer Histone modifications in cancer Emerging areas of cancer epigenetics Epigenetics in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of cancer Future directions in epigenetic cancer research Bringing together different topics into a single compilation, this text is a prime resource for those with interests ranging from the basic mechanisms of tumor biology to cancer therapy. It also serves as a core textbook for advanced courses with a focus on genetic diseases, molecular biology, and/or cancer. This seminal work answers the call for a thorough and authoritative reference that covers the critical and contemporary aspects of this revolutionary field.
Categories: Science

Molecular mechanisms and physiology of disease

Molecular mechanisms and physiology of disease

Overall, this book encompasses a wide range of topics related to epigenetic mechanisms in health and disease and would appeal to anyone with an interest in epigenetics, chromatin biology and emerging epigenetic interventions and therapies.

Author: Nilanjana Maulik

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781493907069

Category: Medical

Page: 505

View: 268

In a simplified form, epigenetics refers to heritable changes in phenotype that are not due to changes in the underlying DNA sequence. In this book, epigenetic mechanisms of regulation and dysregulation in health and disease are explored in great depth. Detailed chapters on epigenetic processes including DNA methylation and chromatin post-translational modifications including potential interventions with DNA methyltransferase inhibitors and histone deacetylase inhibitors are explored in initial chapters. These provide a detailed overview and important background to the entire field. The book is then focussed on epigenetic mechanisms involved in various diseases including anti-inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. Important accounts relating to the effects of epigenetics in metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and asthma are the focus of subsequent chapters. The role of epigenetic dysregulation in malignancy is a current topic of interest and represents an intense field of research. A large component of this book is dedicated to the analysis of aberrant epigenetic processes in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Further, chapters are focused on emerging cancer prevention using nutritional components and anti-cancer therapies particularly with histone deacetylase inhibitors, which have already been approved for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The emerging role of nanoparticle preparations, especially in the context of delivering potential epigenetic therapies to target cells in various diseases, is also explored in this book. Overall, this book encompasses a wide range of topics related to epigenetic mechanisms in health and disease and would appeal to anyone with an interest in epigenetics, chromatin biology and emerging epigenetic interventions and therapies.
Categories: Medical

DNA Methylation Epigenetics and Metastasis

DNA Methylation  Epigenetics and Metastasis

This book provides a broad and rich outline of the epigenetic mechanisms involved in cancer progression and the generation of metastasis.

Author: Manel Esteller

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402036422

Category: Medical

Page: 310

View: 497

This book provides a broad and rich outline of the epigenetic mechanisms involved in cancer progression and the generation of metastasis. It describes the tumor suppressor genes undergoing transcriptional silencing by CpG island promoter hypermethylation in the different tumor types of the human anatomy and their association with tumoral behaviour. It also provides a comprehensive insightful look at the molecular players involved in DNA methylation, histone modification and chromatin remodelling complexes causing epigenetic lesions linked to the metastasic phenotypes. Finally, it explains how epigenetic lesions associated with cancer spreading can be targeted using new and potent chemotherapy drugs. The book is a state-of-the-art reference to all scientific researchers and clinicians interested in the understanding of the biological processes leading to tumor dissemination and to those that are keen to translate this knowledge to a better management of cancer patients. Each contributor is a specialist in their epigenetic area and their joint effort has created a unique view of the DNA methylation, histone and chromatin changes that define cancer metastasis.
Categories: Medical

Discovery of Novel Epigenetic Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis by Genome wide Profiling of Non coding Regulatory Elements

Discovery of Novel Epigenetic Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis by Genome wide Profiling of Non coding Regulatory Elements

In this work, in-depth studies of epigenetic features of both promoters and distal enhancer elements are described, in each case enabled by distinct histone modifications that are chromatin "signatures" of promoter and enhancer elements, ...

Author: Batool Akhtar-Zaidi

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1103608574

Category: Carcinogenesis

Page: 135

View: 226

Epigenetic mechanisms are of paramount importance in cancer. Historically, epigenetic studies of cancer have focused on aberrant DNA methylation events. Far less is known about the role of histone modifications in epigenetic mechanisms of human cancers, and of disease in general. There are a number of reasons why histone modifications are especially important to investigate in the context of tumor formation. While DNA methylation contributes to stable gene silencing and formation of heterochromatin, histone modifications are associated with much more dynamic gene expression patterns. Importantly, histone modifications are also informative of the activity states of distal regulatory elements. Therefore we can use these epigenetic marks to study important regions of the cancer genome that are key regulators of transcription with unprecedented resolution and accuracy. In this work, in-depth studies of epigenetic features of both promoters and distal enhancer elements are described, in each case enabled by distinct histone modifications that are chromatin "signatures" of promoter and enhancer elements, respectively. We show that in colon cancer, the presence of the H3K4me3 active mark is associated with resistance to silencing associated with DNA methylation. We further show evidence that in colon cancer, DNA hypermethylation is likely a relatively rare event at CpG-islands, and that most CpG-islands are probably silenced by alternative mechanisms, specifically the acquisition of repressive histone marks. With respect to distal regulatory elements, enhancer elements are especially attractive candidates to study in cancer, a disease of widespread and heterogeneous aberrant transcription, because they are under normal circumstances drivers of cellular identity and associated global gene expression programs. We report the discovery of thousands of Variant Enhancer Loci, or VELs, which have gained or lost H3K4me1 at enhancer elements in colon cancer samples. We show that VELs are tightly linked to the in vivo colon cancer transcriptome, and furthermore are enriched at colon cancer susceptibility SNPs. We propose that the model describing gene dysregulation in cancer be revised to now include epigenetic dysregulation at enhancer elements as an important mechanism in cancer-specific gene expression.
Categories: Carcinogenesis

Patho Epigenetics of Disease

Patho Epigenetics of Disease

Scientists working in other fields soon followed the pioneering work of cancer researchers, and revealed that epigenetic dysregulation forms the basis of a wide spectrum of human diseases.

Author: Janos Minarovits

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461433453

Category: Medical

Page: 466

View: 545

In multicellular organisms the establishment, maintenance, and programmed alterations of cell-type specific gene expression patterns are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. Thus, epigenetic alterations (DNA methylation, DNA associated Polycomb-Trithorax protein complexes, histone modifications) ensure the unique transcriptional activity and phenotypic diversity of diploid cells that carry identical or nearly identical DNA sequences. Because DNA methyltransferase I (DNMT1) associates with replication foci during S phase and prefers hemimethylated DNA as a substrate, DNMT1 ensures the clonal propagation of cytosine methylation patterns (maintenance methylation). Thus, DNA methylation may provide a memory function by helping progeny cells to “remember” their proper cellular identity. An alternative system of epigenetic memory, the Polycomb and Trithorax groups of protein complexes, that may operate both independently from and in concert with DNA methylation, ensures the heritable regulation of gene expression via modification of histone tails. The complex interplay of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms permits both the dynamic modulation of gene expression and the faithful transmission of gene expression patterns to each progeny cell upon division. These carefully orchestrated processes can go wrong, however, resulting in epigenetic reprogramming of the cells that may manifest in pathological changes, as it was first realized during the studies of epigenetic alterations in malignant tumors. By now it became a well established fact that not only genetic changes, but also the disruption of epigenetic regulation can result in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Scientists working in other fields soon followed the pioneering work of cancer researchers, and revealed that epigenetic dysregulation forms the basis of a wide spectrum of human diseases.
Categories: Medical

Epigenetics of Cancer Prevention

Epigenetics of Cancer Prevention

This book discusses molecular epigenetic targets of natural products, such as green tea polyphenols, curcumin and resveratrol, and organ specific epigenetic targets related to diverse types of cancer, for example prostate, colorectal, ...

Author: Anupam Bishayee

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128125663

Category: Medical

Page: 442

View: 331

Epigenetics of Cancer Prevention, Volume Ten is the first to look at epigenetics and chemoprevention together. Although there is numerous scientific data available on how epigenetics can lead to cancer and how chemoprevention can be beneficial in the treatment of, or improvement of quality of life, together they will set an advanced understanding for the reader in this upcoming field of chemoprevention influencing epigenetics. This book discusses molecular epigenetic targets of natural products, such as green tea polyphenols, curcumin and resveratrol, and organ specific epigenetic targets related to diverse types of cancer, for example prostate, colorectal, breast, lung and skin cancers. Additionally, it encompasses a discussion on research methods and limitations to study epigenetics and epigenomics of chemopreventive drugs and personalized cancer treatment with phytochemicals. The book is ideal for cancer researchers, health care professionals and all individuals who are interested in cancer prevention research and its clinical applications, especially in natural remedies. Lists natural agents, including nutraceuticals, and their effects on normal or tumor genome Addresses various epigenetic systems and mechanisms in the regulation and support of the mammalian genome Discusses how various parts of dietary phytochemicals can influence or modify epigenetic mechanisms in several types of cancer
Categories: Medical

Epigenetic Mechanisms in Human Cancer

Epigenetic Mechanisms in Human Cancer

I hope this work will be useful to other scientists in their quest at other cancer types or diseases by assisting in the design of therapeutic treatments and to identify novel tumor markers.

Author: Luis G. Acevedo

Publisher: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing

ISBN: 3848440326

Category:

Page: 188

View: 660

Epigenetics is the field that studies the changes that regulate gene expression without affecting the coding sequence of DNA, such as changes in DNA methylation and postranslational modifications at the histone tails. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) scientists are able to study which proteins (histones or transcription factors) bind to DNA at a specific locus. ChIP becomes a powerful tool when it is coupled to sequencing or DNA microarrays, a technique known as ChIP-chip, enabling the study of all possible binding sites for any protein across the entire genome. A miniaturized micro-ChIP method was developed in order to perform these experiments in limited amount of tissue. DNA methylation analysis was included as well resulting in the liver cancer methylome. This work presents an effective combinatorial methodology for genome-scale characterization of tumors, allowing the identification of the principal mechanisms responsible for the liver cancer transcriptome. I hope this work will be useful to other scientists in their quest at other cancer types or diseases by assisting in the design of therapeutic treatments and to identify novel tumor markers.
Categories: