There must also be free voting in which voters do not have apprehension about going to the ballot box, ... should be labeled as terrorism when there is consent of the governed, meaning there is rule of law and freedom 78 Bombs and Ballots.
Author: Krista E. Wiegand
Category: Political Science
Eventually, most terrorist and guerrilla groups are defeated by governments or gradually die off - sometimes becoming political parties, democratically participating in the non-violent governance of their states. Yet some terrorist and guerrilla groups maintain military capabilities, using violence and democratic participation simultaneously. Here, Krista E. Wiegand examines the different political strategies that Islamist terrorist and guerrilla groups use to achieve their political objectives. Focussing on Hezbollah in Lebanon and Hamas in Palestine, Wiegand skilfully reveals the factors that determine why Islamist militant groups become involved in governance as political parties, how mainstream governments may or may not accept them as legitimate, why some groups like al- Gama'a al-Islamiya in Egypt renounce guerrilla tactics, and how some groups govern whilst employing political violence. Bombs and Ballots is a valuable contribution to the study of state-society relations in the Middle East, exposing the blurred line between terrorist activity and governance.
Maligning democracy assistance by arguing that elections alone cannot bring about, and do not constitute, democracy, is the “ballots” component of the “bombs and ballots” myth: that promoting democracy is simply pushing for more ...
Author: Lincoln A. Mitchell
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
Category: Political Science
In November of 2003, a stolen election in the former Soviet republic of Georgia led to protests and the eventual resignation of President Eduard Shevardnadze. Shevardnadze was replaced by a democratically elected government led by President Mikheil Saakashvili, who pledged to rebuild Georgia, orient it toward the West, and develop a European-style democracy. Known as the Rose Revolution, this early twenty-first-century democratic movement was only one of the so-called color revolutions (Orange in Ukraine, Tulip in Kyrgyzstan, and Cedar in Lebanon). What made democratic revolution in Georgia thrive when so many similar movements in the early part of the decade dissolved? Lincoln A. Mitchell witnessed the Rose Revolution firsthand, even playing a role in its manifestation by working closely with key Georgian actors who brought about change. In Uncertain Democracy, Mitchell recounts the events that led to the overthrow of Shevardnadze and analyzes the factors that contributed to the staying power of the new regime. The book also explores the modest but indispensable role of the United States in contributing to the Rose Revolution and Georgia's failure to live up to its democratic promise. Uncertain Democracy is the first scholarly examination of Georgia's recent political past. Drawing upon primary sources, secondary documents, and his own NGO experience, Mitchell presents a compelling case study of the effect of U.S. policy of promoting democracy abroad.
18) similarly points out, “A Hamas movement that had to ask for Palestinians' votes would likely behave ... The nuance of this shift from bombs to ballots was evidently lost on Israel and the major Western powers which continue to ...
Author: Tristan Dunning
This book investigates the many faces of Hamas and examines its ongoing evolution as a resistance organisation in the context of the Israel/Palestine conflict. Specifically, the work interrogates Hamas’ interpretation, reinterpretation and application of the twin concepts of muqawama (resistance) and jihad (striving in the name of God). The text frames the movement’s capacity to accrue popular legitimacy through its evolving resistance discourses, centred on the notion of jihad, and the practical applications thereof. Moving beyond the dominant security-orientated approaches to Hamas, the book investigates the malleable nature of both resistance and jihad including their social, symbolic, political and ideational applications. The diverse interpretations of these concepts allow Hamas to function as a comprehensive social movement. Where possible, this volume attempts to privilege first-order or experiential knowledge emanating from the movement itself, its political representatives, and the Palestinian population in general. Many of these accounts were collected by the author during fieldwork in the Middle East. Not only does this work present new primary data, but it also investigates a variety of contemporary empirical events related to Palestine and the Middle East. This book offers an alternative way of viewing the movement’s popular legitimacy grounded in theoretical, empirical and ethnographic terms. This book will be of much interest to students of Hamas, political violence, critical terrorism studies, Middle Eastern politics, security studies and IR in general.
49 The Spanish home minister, Rubalcaba, expressed the PSOE government's new position of nondialogue by warning Batasuna and ETA, again and again during 2009 and 2010, that they had to make a choice: “Either bombs or ballots.
Author: Imanol Murua
Category: Political Science
This book explains how and why the Basque separatist armed group ETA decided to end its armed campaign against the Spanish state. The ETA’s armed campaign for Basque independence lasted fifty years and led to more than 800 casualties. This book analyzes the factors that led to ETA ending its campaign of violence in 2011, despite having yet to achieve its political objectives. It explains how the Basque pro-independence movement’s political leadership won an internal battle and brought ETA to a position in which abandoning violence was the only feasible choice. The work argues that the key factor leading to the cessation of violence was the loss of support for armed struggle within the pro-independence social base, and it examines why and how that support decreased so decisively. Written by a former journalist, the narrative is based on more than 30 interviews, including former members of ETA, Spanish judges, former ministers of the Spanish government, political leaders of all Basque political parties—from the Nationalist Left to the Partido Popular (PP)—and international mediators. As such, it is the first book to recount in detail the inside story of the internal struggle within the Nationalist Left movement, and particularly between the political party Batasuna and ETA. This book will be of much interest to students of political violence, ethnic conflict, nationalism, Spanish politics, security studies, and IR.
... and divisions within societies Jeffrey Herbst Terence McNamee, Greg Mills. FROM BOMBS TO BALLOTS: THE RISE OF POLITICS IN NORTHERN IRELAND Chris Brown 'The Irish never forget and the English never remember' William Gladstone ...
Author: Jeffrey Herbst
Publisher: Profile Books
Category: Business & Economics
Societies in all countries are split by major divisions - or 'faultlines' - caused by differences in race, religion, ethnicity, wealth, class or power. Like geological faultlines, some are plainly evident, whereas others are more concealed and can erupt with little warning. Violence along faultlines within states, from Sudan to Iraq to the Congo, is the spark of much contemporary conflict. It has cost millions of lives in the past twenty years alone. In extreme cases, this violence threatens to tear states apart. Yet some countries such as Canada, South Africa and Northern Ireland, have largely succeeded in managing their faultlines. On the Faultline is based on a unique year-long project by some of the world's leading experts to examine the nature of conflict around these divisions. In a world facing acute environmental, migration and resource challenges that can only exacerbate differences, it is an essential guide to understanding a phenomenon that all countries must grapple with in the 21st century.
BOMBS AND BALLOTS : The Madrid Attack And The American Election " Democratic civilization is the first in history to blame itself because another power is trying to destroy it . " —Jean - Francois Revel1 " Our readiness to meet the ...
Author: Richard Miniter
Publisher: Regnery Publishing
Category: Political Science
Presents an analysis of the Bush Administration's efforts to stop Al Qaeda and cites a number of instances where their anti-terror efforts have been successful in protecting the United States from further attacks.
A more sophisticated version is that the Labour Party believes in “ graduated unilateralism ” , or “ having a smaller bomb for a shorter time ” . ... Five per cent in the 1970s ; this is the BOMBS AND VOTES 5 Nuclear Arms.
CNN, “Bombs precede ballots in Haiti elections,” November 23, 2000. AP, “Haitians vote in presidential elections amid tension, bombings,” November 26, 2000, available at http://transcripts.cnn.com/2000/WORLD/ ...
Author: Jeb Sprague
Publisher: NYU Press
Category: Political Science
In this path-breaking book, Jeb Sprague investigates the dangerous world of right-wing paramilitarism in Haiti and its role in undermining the democratic aspirations of the Haitian people. Sprague focuses on the period beginning in 1990 with the rise of Haiti’s first democratically elected president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, and the right-wing movements that succeeded in driving him from power. Over the ensuing two decades, paramilitary violence was largely directed against the poor and supporters of Aristide’s Lavalas movement, taking the lives of thousands of Haitians. Sprague seeks to understand how this occurred, and traces connections between paramilitaries and their elite financial and political backers, in Haiti but also in the United States and the Dominican Republic. The product of years of original research, this book draws on over fifty interviews—some of which placed the author in severe danger—and more than 11,000 documents secured through Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests. It makes a substantial contribution to our understanding of Haiti today, and is a vivid reminder of how democratic struggles in poor countries are often met with extreme violence organized at the behest of capital.
Just as the Vietnamese students and protestors against U.S. presence had carried banners in the streets of DaNang, Hue and Saigon with many slogans; the SDS wrote popular slogans such as “War on Poverty – Not People”, “Ballots not Bombs ...
Author: Art Graham
Growing technology and affluence, rock n roll, baseball, and muscle carsall told through the youth and early adult years of a small-town Montana boy and war veteran. This is a history of the glorious 50s and 60s in America. It is a history also of politicians, the indecency of segregation and war, and the struggle for racial equality and peace. A history of two great nations. Intertwined is the unique history of Vietnam and the Vietnamese long struggle for independence. It is a rendering also of the unique culture of Vietnam with fascinating stories of emperors within the walls of a Forbidden City. Included in the book is a review of the relationship of two nationsone mighty and one resistantultimately entangled in a catastrophic war. Nearly fifty-nine thousand Americans lost to family,friends, wives, and lovers. More than two million Vietnamese soldiers and civilians perished in a war that could not be won.
bombs, ballots, and fusion politics the case of the mcnamara brothers At 1:07 in the morning on October 1, 1910, a series of enormous explosions ripped through the Los Angeles Times building on the corner of First and Broadway streets ...
Author: Fred Glass
Publisher: University of California Press
There is no better time than now to consider the labor history of the Golden State. While other states face declining union enrollment rates and the rollback of workers’ rights, California unions are embracing working immigrants, and voters are protecting core worker rights. What’s the difference? California has held an exceptional place in the imagination of Americans and immigrants since the Gold Rush, which saw the first of many waves of working people moving to the state to find work. From Mission to Microchip unearths the hidden stories of these people throughout California’s history. The difficult task of the state’s labor movement has been to overcome perceived barriers such as race, national origin, and language to unite newcomers and natives in their shared interest. As chronicled in this comprehensive history, workers have creatively used collective bargaining, politics, strikes, and varied organizing strategies to find common ground among California’s diverse communities and achieve a measure of economic fairness and social justice. This is an indispensible book for students and scholars of labor history and history of the West, as well as labor activists and organizers.